Special contributions from each city

In addition to the central aim of the TAPAS project to develop the health impact assessment model, each TAPAS partner develops special research interests that they contribute to the program. The additional research aims at filling some of the important knowledge gaps and needs within the overall TAPAS framework. Following is a summary of the special contributions provided by each city, with the leading partner identified to coordinate the effort (in partnership with others):

• PRAGUE: Econometrics analysis of selected policy impacts on active travel. In Prague they are currently developing data collection and analysis protocols. Data needs include 1) policy indicators (e.g.infrastructure), 2) mode modal, and 3) other explanatory variables such as socio-demographics and meteorology. We will invite collaborators beyond TAPAS to provide data to allow cross sectional analyses comparing infrastructure or programs with amount of walking and cycling in a variety of settings across European cities. Where possible additional longitudinal analyses will evaluate progression of active transportation as a response to changes in policies, programs, or infrastructure.

• WARSAW: Uncertainty analysis; large database management. In Warsaw they work on sensitivity analyses and developing methods of value of information to evaluate benefits of improving knowledge in selected uncertain inputs of the health impact model. The partners are considering the possibility to manage the large database of inputs to the model provided by the 6-city partners.

• BASEL: Simulation of commute patterns and commuters’ air pollution exposure. In Basel they are developing methods of simulating exposures in different travel modes based on real travel pattern census information on home and work location and commute mode choice. Route information is not known and will be modeled under various scenarios. The methods will be validated with measurements of air pollution in different modes.

• COPENHAGEN: physical activity- diet - air pollution epidemiologic analysis. In Copenhagen they are conducting epidemiologic analyses on effect modification of the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on health by diet and/or physical activity. The analyses are based on the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (57 053 subjects in Copenhagen and Aarhus interviewed in 1993-1997, age 50-65 years).

• PARIS: Stakeholder involvement strategy; air pollution and physical activity analysis; economic evaluation. In Paris they are focusing part of the ADEME partner efforts on developing a systematic approach to addressing and involving stakeholders. Furthermore at IRMES team they are conducting measurements of physical activity in different travel modes as well as analyses of athletes’ performance as a function of air pollution levels. Also they are developing economic evaluations of active travel policies.

• BARCELONA: Commuter-health experimental study; active travel survey behaviour, motivations and barriers. In Barcelona they are conducting a study on the intermediate health impacts of air pollution exposure during active travel. The experimental design assesses the combined effect of traffic air pollution and physical activity by measuring markers of health before and after exposures while at rest or while biking in a highly polluted street or less polluted street in Barcelona. Furthermore they are conducting a study to understand the motivations and barriers to cycling and in particular the impacts of the Bicing program on cycling behavior.